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How to Convert From PAM to PCM

Pulse-Amplitude Modulation (PAM) is a method of transmitting an analog signal with a series of equally spaced pulses. The amplitude of each PAM pulse corresponds to the sampled amplitude value of the analog signal to be transmitted. Pulse-Code Modulation (PCM) encodes the amplitude values of a sampl

How to Cut & Fit Plastic Watch Crystals

When a watch crystal gets ruined, it needs to be replaced. This can be for any number of reasons, but the most common causes are deep scratches and breaks or cracks. If the crystal is plastic, then a new plastic crystal needs to be inserted into the watch. You might be able to find an exact replace

How to Use Unflavored Gelatin As a Quieting Solution

Observing a drop of water from a pond, stream or river under a microscope is like watching another world. There is so much happening so fast, and so much to learn. Unfortunately, the microscopic animals move out of your field of vision quickly, and do not live long outside their habitat. You can pre

Step by Step Instructions on How to Build a Playhouse

A playhouse is a toy many kids enjoy playing with and can act as a secret meeting place for their imaginary clubs and games. Many types of playhouses are expensive at toy stores, and building one yourself from some basic household items can be a more cost-effective choice. Using materials you have l

Instructions for an Amateur Radio Solid State HF Amplifier

Ham radio enthusiasts use radio amplifiers to strengthen their broadcast signals. High Frequency (HF) amplifiers operate between the 3MHz and 30MHz frequency bands, in the frequency range reserved for amateur, ham radio. Solid state amplifiers use transistors instead of tubes. The transistor is an i

How to Calculate CV

The coefficient of variation is used in statistics as an indication of the relative spread about the mean of the distribution of a set of data. The normal or Gaussian distributions are two possible ways the data might be distributed. The coefficient of variation can be calculated using the formula (

What Are the Essential Components of the Rock Cycle?

The rock cycle describes the continuous creation, destruction and recycling of Earth's crust. Not only does this cycle define the formation of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks, it describes the relationship between the rocks and the geologic processes that form them. Therefore, the key com

How to Move Hero to a New Kingdom in "The Sims Medieval"

In "The Sims Medieval," focus in the game is on creating kingdoms to satisfy various ambitions. Once you've used up all your quest points in the game, it is tempting to move on to one of the newly unlocked ambitions. But if you stay and play one more quest, you can transfer your Sim into

How to Melt the Ice Over Doorways

If a doorway is not covered, winter ice will build up and make the door impossible to open or close. Snow left near a doorway can melt and re-freeze into ice. Getting rid of the ice is not a fun task, but it needs to be done. Gather a few tools and destroy the ice. Then take preventative measures be

How to Build a Wood & Glass Aquarium

Collecting tropical fish and keeping aquariums is a popular hobby, but it can also be expensive. One way to keep costs down is to build your own aquarium, but if you'd like a larger tank, it can still be pricey and complicated. If your hobby, needs and budget don't seem to fit together, consider bui

Storage & Disposal of Nuclear Waste

The long-term storage and disposal of nuclear waste is a problem several nations are attempting to address. What is called low-level nuclear waste, not very radioactive, is easy to store. But the high-level nuclear waste coming out of power plants and weapons facilities presents a challenge. Most cu

Directions to Make Duct Tape Purses Without Using Cardboard

Duct tape crafts combine the delightfully tacky with elements of bold, masculine DIY. Using duct tape to create something as traditionally feminine as a purse is a particularly humorous gesture, but also one that can result in a sturdy, inexpensive and strangely stylish handbag. By using paper inste

Control Valve Trim Characteristics

The relationship between the position of a control valve, from fully closed to fully open, and its flow rate is known as its flow characteristic. The physical shape of the plug and seat of the valve, otherwise known as the valve trim, determines the flow characteristic.

Types of Range-Finding Rifle Scopes

Range-finding scopes can greatly improve long-range accuracysniper rifle on the tripod and optical sight image by Vladimir Melnik from Fotolia.comRange-finding scopes are a type of telescopic sight used to increase the accuracy of long-range shots from a rifle or other firearm. The...

How to Frame Mosaics

Mosaics have been created by artists for thousands of years; these pictures were used to decoratively cover walls, furniture and floors. If you would like to capture the look of a mosaic wall, you do not have to cover your entire wall with glass tiles in order to achieve the look. Instead, make your

Will a Plant Pollinated by a Hermaphrodite Produce Female Seeds?

Hermaphrodite plants have both male and female parts so that they can pollinate themselves, although they can also be pollenated by male plants. Some hermaphrodite plants produce female seeds, while others don't. The ratio of female to male or hermaphrodite seeds these plants produce depends on the

How to Make a Nylon Sheath

Nylon sheaths are handy for storing and protecting a variety of items, especially knives. Making your own nylon sheath allows you to customize the color and design. A customized sheath makes a nice gift for sports and outdoor enthusiasts. Simple sheaths take only a few materials and can be construct

Cheats for Space Colony

"Space Colony" is a video game designed for play on a PC. The game allows you to build a colony of people that you must care for, and also mine minerals that will keep the planet functioning. While doing all of this, you must also fight off aliens from other planets that are attempting to destroy yo

How to Build a Small Scale Solar Panel

Solar panels make use of renewable energy that comes in the form of sunlight. On a large scale, solar panels can provide energy for an entire house or building without creating any sort of pollution. As solar panels become more and more popular, the prices are starting to plummet, but it is very che

How to Maintain a Cigar Humidifier

Like wine lovers, cigar collectors enjoy purchasing interesting varieties and storing their finds. These varieties range in price and can be rather expensive. Cigar smokers make a habit of carefully keeping their cigars in wooden humidors, to prolong their shelf life and preserve the investment. Hum